" Optimal low-density lipoprotein is 50 to 70 mg/dl Lower is better and physiologically normal "" Evidence from hunter-gatherer populations while they were still following their indigenous lifestyles showed no evidence for atherosclerosis, even in individuals living into the seventh and eighth decades of life (15,16) . These populations had total cholesterol levels of 100 to 150 mg/dl with estimated LDL cholesterol levels of about 50 to 75 mg/dl. The LDL levels of healthy neonates are even today in the 30 to 70 mg/dl range. Healthy, wild, adult primates show LDL levels of approximately 40 to 80 mg/dl (17) . In fact, modern humans are the only adult mammals, excluding some domesticated animals, with a mean LDL level over 80 mg/dl and a total cholesterol over 160 mg/dl (15,16) (Fig. 1 ). Thus, although an LDL level of 50 to 70 mg/dl seems excessively low by modern American standards, it is precisely the normal range for individuals living the lifestyle and eating the diet for which we are genetically adapted."View Thread
I had a hard time posting this. Kept getting different error messages and had to try 3 different browsers.
Anyway this is from the same report.
" How low is too low?. Cholesterol is an essential component of the cell membrane and an obligate precursor for bile acid, steroid hormone, and vitamin D synthesis. Consequently, it is likely that a physiologically ideal range of blood cholesterol exists above and below which adverse health consequences might be expected. Although individuals with serious chronic illnesses, such as cancer, often develop depressed LDL levels as a result of malnutrition, epidemiologic studies show that people with naturally low LDL levels are associated with improved longevity (27) . The cumulative experience with statin therapy shows impressive cardiovascular benefits that are directly proportional to LDL lowering with no increase in adverse events such as malignancy or non-cardiovascular mortality (5—12,18—26) . The incidence of the two principal adverse effects commonly attributed to statins—liver and muscle toxicity—rise modestly as a function of dose of statin utilized but not in relationship to the on-treatment LDL level (5—12) . People with heterozygous hypobetalipoproteinemia have total cholesterol levels as low as 80 mg/dl and LDL cholesterol levels as low as 30 mg/dl (30) . This condition is associated with longevity (31) , presumably due to the absence of atherosclerosis, but the lack of other adverse effects that might have accompanied a low LDL level suggests that such low levels of LDL are safe. Unintended benefits of LDL lowering. Inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, both important markers of abnormal vascular biology, have been shown to be improved as LDL is lowered to <80 mg/dl (12,24) . Statin therapy has been associated with reductions in the incidence of symptomatic peripheral vascular disease (32) , stroke (33) , dementia (34) , macular degeneration (35) , aortic stenosis (36) , and osteoporosis-related hip and vertebral fractures (37) . Although the mechanisms responsible for these benefits are not known, it is possible that an elevated LDL cholesterol level may be a common denominator predisposing to a wide variety of chronic degenerative diseases seen in modern civilization. If our genetically determined ideal LDL is indeed 50 to 70 mg/dl, perhaps lowering the currently average but elevated levels closer to the physiologically normal range may improve not just CHD but also many other diseases commonly attributed to the aging process. For all of these reasons, and given the safety record of statins, some investigators have suggested that statins be considered for routine use in individuals over age 55 years (38) ."View Thread
"Super-Sticky 'Ultra-Bad' Cholesterol Revealed in People at High Risk of Heart Disease COVENTRY, ENGLAND, UK — Scientists from the University of Warwick have discovered why a newly found form of cholesterol seems to be 'ultra-bad', leading to increased risk of heart disease. The discovery could lead to new treatments to prevent heart disease particularly in people with type 2 diabetes and the elderly.
The research, funded by the British Heart Foundation , found that 'ultrabad' cholesterol, called MGmin-low-density lipoprotein, which is more common in people with type 2 diabetes and the elderly, appears to be 'stickier' than normal low-density lipoprotein. This makes it more likely to attach to the walls of arteries. When low-density lipoprotein attaches to artery walls it helps form the dangerous 'fatty' plaques' that cause coronary heart disease. ....
The researchers made the discovery by creating human MGmin-low-density lipoprotein in the laboratory, then studying its characteristics and interactions with other important molecules in the body. They found that MGmin-low-density lipoprotein is created by the addition of sugar groups to 'normal' low-density lipoprotein — a process called glycation — making low-density lipoprotein smaller and denser. By changing its shape, the sugar groups expose new regions on the surface of the low-density lipoprotein. These exposed regions are more likely to stick to artery walls, helping to build fatty plaques. As fatty plaques grow they narrow arteries — reducing blood flow — and they can eventually rupture, triggering a blood clot that causes a heart attack or stroke. The discovery might also explain why metformin, a widely prescribed type 2 diabetes drug, seems to lead to reduced heart disease risk. Metformin is known to lower blood sugar levels, and this new research shows it may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease by blocking the transformation of normal low-density lipoprotein to the more 'sticky' MGmin-low-density lipoprotein.
We've known for a long time that people with diabetes are at greater risk of heart attack and stroke. There is still more work to be done to untangle why this is the case, but this study is an important step in the right direction. "This study shows how the make-up and the shape of a type of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol found in diabetics could make it more harmful than other types of low-density lipoprotein. The findings provide one possible explanation for the increased risk of coronary heart disease in people with diabetes. "Understanding exactly how 'ultrabad' low-density lipoprotein damages arteries is crucial, as this knowledge could help develop new anti-cholesterol treatments for patients.""View Thread
"Alcohol contain elevated amount of calories and has a special potent effect on triglycerides. Even a little amounts of alcohol can elevate triglyceride levels."
Yet, on your website.
You need to drink wine frequently however you need to maintain the quantity in moderation. The consumption of alcohol has need observed to be a healthy and life extending add ups to individual diet but the quantity is maintained in control. Once you will drink about 1 up to 2 glasses everyday then your average years will go longer more than you expect it. Those who drink wine normally experience greater levels of omega 3 fatty acids within their blood lower LDL cholesterol levels and greater HDL cholesterol levels."
"Alcohol- with the apology to some American heart association that discourages physician from saying that their patients in terms of advantages in alcohol, one to two drinks each day, hastens to add may lead to some substantial health problems which include heart failure as well as some people who develop such trouble even when it limits their alcohol intake tow or more drinks a day."
Which is it?
And your website has absolutely no information about who you are or what the bases is of the "information" that you post. View Thread
The only other food that I know of that increases is alcohol in moderation. That would be 5 oz of wine, 12 of beer, or 1 1/2 oz of spirits. Of course that has it own problems, but all of the studies show that moderate consumption is good for you.
And the article on chocolate did not mention amount. Most studies on heart disease, in general talks about very small consumption rates, on the average.
I have been eating Lindt 85% cocoa bars. I is 3.5 oz in 10 squares. I east 1 square a day. A "serving" is 4 squares.
In that square I 4.5 gm fat, 2 gm carbs, 1.25 gram sugar.