"Fruit is loaded with sugar" is a loaded statement.
It is true that the calories in fruit are basically all from sugar. In that sense, it is "loaded with sugar."
But to put fruit in the same lump as sugary junk foods is specious. First, compare the amount of sugar in fruit to the amount in soda. A typical serving of fruit is ~12 grams. A typical soda is 30-40 grams per serving. That's loaded with sugar. A typical donut can have ~20-40 grams of sugar plus an additional 20-40 grams of high glycemic starch. Furthermore, in fruit, the sugar is packaged in cells which slows its absorption, as opposed to foods with added sugars where it is free and readily absorbed. Consequently, compared to many carbohydrate foods, fruit has a relatively low glycemic index. (The sugar is absorbed gradually.) Fruit is also very nutritious for the calories. This is why moderate amounts of whole fruit are recommended as a standard part of a healthy diet and why we talk about limiting "added sugars" to distinguish them from the sugar intrinsic to fruit and milk.
On an 1800 Calorie diet, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends 1.5 cups of fruit/day. The Calories will be about 150. For that you get about 5 grams of fiber, 500 mg potassium, and many other vitamins and minerals. Claiming that fruit is "the worst food when trying to lose weight" is not very circumspect.View Thread
I agree with you that any wholesome food can be part of a normal healthy diet if you watch portions and frequency for most people. (I clarify "wholesome" because I don't count things like cotton candy, fruit roll-ups, as wholesome.)
There is a commonly held belief that "starches are fattening." At face value, this is obviously not true. The majority of skinny people consume significant amounts of starch in their diets. However, starchy foods are caloric. Going back to your point that moderation matters, starchy foods in excess are fattening. But it is the excess, not the mere fact that they are starchy.
Also, some people with carbohydrate metabolism problems (such as people with diabetes) often need to watch starchy foods (as Rohvannyn does) more carefully than the average person because starchy foods do raise blood sugars and can do so significantly.
Finally, because rice and corn are starchy, they are relatively high in calories compared to the micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals). Rice and corn are in about the same ballpark. Obviously carrots and greens get you much more nutrition for your calorie buck. But you do have to meet your calorie needs. For most people, there is room for some corn, rice, and other grain foods.View Thread
1. Since they were "research articles," can you provide references so that they can be evaluated directly?
2. Keep in mind that any research article in isolation can lead you to believe something very different than the bulk of research. It is best not to draw conclusions from individual studies but from literature reviews of the field.
3. There is a small but significant minority of researchers who believe saturated fat, per se, is not a health problem. At this point, the majority of health authorities do not concur with that point of view. However, you should know that this is an on-going story. There will be news about this for the foreseeable future and recommendations will evolve over the years. Nevertheless, current advice remains to keep your saturated fat at moderate levels. (About 10% of total calories, less if you have existing heart disease.).
4. There is an increasing body of research on individual fatty acids as opposed to the major classes of fatty acids (saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated). With that body of research, some saturated fatty acids have gained status as okay for you. Specifically, the saturated stearic acid (18:0) which predominates cocoa butter is considered "health neutral" having health properties very similar to the predominant monounsaturated fat, oleic acid.
5. Also short chain fatty acids are metabolized very differently than longer chain fatty acids and are not a concern for heart health and are arguably "good for you."
6. There is one polyunsaturated fat, conjugated linoleic acid, in dairy fat that has limited evidence that it is "good for you."
However, even though dairy fat has more conjugated linoleic acid than meat fats, it is a small amount of the total fat. And even though dairy fat has more short chain fatty acids than meat fats, it is a small amount of the total fat.
If you look at the saturated fatty acids that are the purported "bad for you" fats, myristic fatty acid (14:0) and palmitic acid (16:0), there is *more* of them in dairy fat (~38%) than in beef fat (~28%), pork fat (~26%), or chicken fat (~24%). Those meats are much higher in monounsaturated fat and stearic acid than dairy fat. So, at face value, I don't think there is merit to the claim that dairy fat's saturated fat is healthier than meat dairy fats. I suspect they were only talking about the merits of some of the other fats that are present in limited quantities. Since there is more of the "bad," will the "good" overcome the "bad"? This is why it is important to get good research on the health effects of *food* not just reduce them to the individual nutrients. Currently, the prevailing opinion is that dairy fats should be limited to moderation.View Thread
Since you are already following a low carb diet, gluten free should not require many changes. Since gluten comes from wheat, rye, barley, and with some risk from oats, you only have to avoid those foods. If, on your low carb diet, you are eliminating bread/pasta, that takes care of most the most common sources of wheat. If you want to sometimes have those foods, there are a number of companies that create specialty gluten free breads and pasta. Another major source is cereals -- most breakfast cereals have wheat/barley, but there are many that do not. Again, if you are already avoiding carbs, you may already be strictly limiting cereals. You will also need to become vigilant checking labels on processed foods for hidden sources of wheat/rye/barley. Those usually have readily available alternatives. You don't have to make any changes to fresh fruit, vegetables, meat, fish, or poultry to be gluten free.
You had no fruit on your list. I recommend you rely more on fresh fruit for snacks rather than packaged foods, especially to displace sweet snacks like the cakes.
You have very few vegetables both in quantity and variety. Aim for much more vegetables. ~3.5 cups a day. Try including the carrots in your afternoon snacks, but have a different variety of vegetables at dinner. Try to consume about 3 cups a week of dark greens such as spinach, dark lettuces, and broccoli.
Try to consume much less sugary beverages and snacks. The recommended limit for *added* sugars is 25-30 grams a day. This does not include the sugars naturally in fruit or milk, only added sugars. An 8 oz soda already exceeds this goal: soda should only be a sometimes beverage.
Your sodium intake may be high from the fast food. Calcium appears probably low.
If you are newly using insulin it is imperative that your medical care provider provide you with a referral to a certified diabetes educator who can address this question with you. It is a complex question that needs to take your individual needs into consideration. They need to take your medical history and more into account.View Thread
For B12, if you are consuming at least a cup of milk daily, you should be all set. The RDA for adults is 2.4 mcg. A cup of 1% milk contains a bit more than 4 mcg. Even if you don't have milk, eggs, cheese, and yogurt can add up to the RDA.
Iron is a bit more of a challenge because non-heme iron does not absorb as well. Consequently, the RDA for adult females is 32 mg/day which is quite a bit. The dairy and egg contribute a small amount. However, there are many good vegetarian sources, mainly beans and dark greens. Also, many grain foods, especially cereals have high levels of fortification, so it may not be too hard to achieve. Again, VRG.org provides an excellent resource: http://www.vrg.org/nutrition/iron.php
Still for both of those nutrients, many people (vegetarian or not) can be poor absorbers of those nutrients. In that case supplementation may be necessary. There is no harm in adding a B12 supplement as insurance. However, you should NOT supplement with iron unless a blood test confirms there is a problem.