The average person requires between 7-8 hours of sleep per night. However, some people require as much as10 hours of sleep per night and others require only 4 hours of sleep per night. No matter what your personal requirement is, the main objective is to feel rejuvenated upon awakening. People with liver disease often suffer from sleep disturbances. In fact, approximately 35 to 50 percent of people with cirrhosis report having sleep-related difficulties. Some people have trouble falling asleep and others have difficulty staying asleep. Many people complain of being tired all day and awake all night. Others complain of erratic sleeping habits characterized by days of excessive sleep (a condition known as hypersomnia) alternating with days of lack of sleep (a condition known as insomnia). Still others state that they experience delays of their usual bedtimes and wake-up times. For most people suffering from these sleep disorders, the sleep they do get is not refreshing. Sleep disturbances may cause decreased concentration, poor coordination, excessive fatigue, anxiety and depression. It may affect personal relationships, work performance, and physical appearance. These symptoms and consequences of sleep disorders are magnified in people with liver disease as they may already be suffering from one or more of the aforementioned symptoms. The cause of sleeping disorders in people with liver disease is unclear, but most likely it relates to alterations in the body's production of melatonin—a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland and is involved in the sleep cycle. Sometimes, sleep disturbances stem from medications used for the treatment of liver disease. For example, interferon, ribavirin, prednisone, and propanolol all may cause insomnia. Pruritus (itching) can sometimes cause a sleeping disorder. People suffering from intense itching (discussed on page xx) may find themselves awake half the night scratching. People on interferon therapy for chronic hepatitis may be drinking up to a gallon a day of water to diminish the side effect of dehydration. Therefore, they may be awakening throughout the night to go to the bathroom. Discontinuation of water or fluid intake 2-3 hours prior to retiring, along with urinating before bedtime, may alleviate this problem. Caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol consumption may disturb sleep habits. Abstaining from these substances will likely assist in the quest for a good night's sleep. Note that sleep disturbances may also be a sign of impending encephalopathyView Thread
Since this is understandably such a frequent question, I am leaving up this information.
Sexual contact, whether it is genital, oral, or anal, appears to be an extremely inefficient means of HCV transmission. In fact, many studies evaluating this route of transmission have failed to detect the presence of HCV in either the saliva, semen, or urine of HCV-infected people—except when these body fluids have been contaminated by the person's blood. However, it is important to emphasize that HCV has the potential to be transmitted through intimate contact if there are breaks in the skin or in the lining of the mouth, vagina, or anus. This may occur for a variety of reasons including the presence of active, bleeding herpes sores; an inflamed and infected prostate gland, known as prostatitis; or as a result of traumatic or rough sex, especially anal intercourse.
HCV has been detected with greater-than-average frequency among people who have a history of sexual promiscuity. While there is no exact definition for sexual promiscuity, one study published in the New England Journal of Medicine defines it as a "history of a sexually transmitted disease, sex with a prostitute, more than five sexual partners per year, or a combination of these." Of interest is that it appears to be easier for a man to transmit HCV to a woman than vice versa.
A person who is in a long-term monogamous relationship with an HCV-infected person rarely contracts this virus. Only approximately 2 percent (a range of 0 to 6 percent) of sexual partners of HCV-infected people also test positive for HCV. However, it is important to note that this statistic is based on indirect evidence only. Therefore, whether these people became infected through a sexual act or by another route is unclear. For example, people in long-standing relationships generally care for one another in times of illness or injury. During such times, HCV may be transmitted to the spouse or partner as blood-barrier precautions may not always be taken into consideration—even among the most cautious of couples.
Household Contact Transmission of HCV among family members or other people living together may occur. This potentially can happen through the sharing of razors, toothbrushes, or any sharp instruments that carry HCV-infected blood. Therefore, it is crucial to keep all personal items, such as toothbrushes, in a separate part of the bathroom or specifically labeled. In this manner, the accidental use of a potentially HCV-infected household item will be decreased. The incidence of contracting HCV from accidental household contact in the United States is unknown. However, data from other countries indicate that it is low—approximately 4 percent.View Thread
Just found out I have Hep/C I'm a bit scared I don'y really know what to expect I believe I've had this for a long time. I've lived quite a unsavory life style in the past and had some blood transfusions back in 83 after giving birth. No matter the orgin of my Hep/C I have it now what should I do with it any advice is welcome please.View Thread
BLUEBERRIES Studies conducted in an HCV subgenomic replicon cell culture have demonstrated that blueberry leaves contain a potent inhibitor of HCV replication known as proanthocyanidan. Further study on this provocative natural agent is anticipated. GRAPEFRUIT Naringenin, a flavanoid contained in grapefruit and other citrus fruits, has numerous beneficial properties that potentially can prevent and/or treat NAFLD/NASH. Naringenin has been reported to be an antiinflammatory, an antioxidant, and a lipid-lowering agent, and may act as a promoter of carbohydrate metabolism. Studies have demonstrated that naringenin may decrease insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, in addition to preventing obesity and the development of fatty livers in mice independent of total energy intake. Trials will need to be conducted to confirm these finding in humans. Furthermore, it appears that dose of naringenin required to correct metabolic disturbances associated with insulin resistance is much higher than the amount capable of obtaining from grapefruits. Thus, a more concentrated supplement will need to be produced, or intravenous administration may be necessary in humans for comparable efficacy to be acheived. It should be kept in mind that compounds in grapefruit juice — furanocoumarins, inhibit intestinal first-pass metabolism of many medications, resulting in increased systemic drug exposure and enhanced drug toxicity. A fatty liver develops in some patients with chronic HCV. This is believed to be due to the interaction of the virus with cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. One step in the HCV life cycle involves attachment of the virus to very low density lipoprotein (vLDL) prior to secretion. The grapefruit flavanoid naringenin has been found to inhibit secretion of HCV from hepatocytes in cell culture in part by inhibiting vLDL secretion. Dosages of naringenin up to 1000 µM have been found to be nontoxic to hepatocytes in cell culture. Studies will need to be conducted on humans confirming these intriguing results and defining the role of naringenin in HCV treatment.View Thread
There has been a study at the Boston MA Hospital about pure and simple grapefruit juice. It WORKS!!!!! I have been on 3 txs including Infergen, viral load went to 60 but enzyme levels never went normal.Last tx was almost 2 yrs. Could not kick it. Geno type 1A. I read about grapefruit juice and I started to drink it every morning. My enzyme levels after 6 months of starting have been normal. My viral load after tx went back up to 15,000,000. Last blood test it is 1,500,000. My dr has even released me to my primary care dr. I use natural not from concentrate in the refridg section of the grocery store. I have now also been eating a grapefruit a day before bed. It give me hope. I lost a kidney last yr, I suspect from the tx. I hope this helps many of you, that have only hope left.View Thread
1. Click My Exchange Profile. (left sidebar) or My Account (top right corner)
2. The click Change my picture (If you chose “My Exchange Profile”) or Click Edit next to profile picture. (If you chose to upload using "My Account")
3. Click Select Image.
4. Then browse on your computer for the file you want to use.
5. Click Upload.
6. It then will give you the option to crop or to use a portion of a larger picture if you want.
7. Use your mouse to move the gray overlay over the part of the picture you want to use. The darker squares at the corners of the dotted lines can be moved to stretch or shrink the portion of the picture you want to use.
8. Click Save.
9. You will return to either your my Exchange Profile page or your my Account page-depending on where you started. On that page you should see your new photo.
10. Note: It will take four to 24 hours for your photo to change next to your posts in the exchanges.View Thread
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